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1. Based on the meta-analysis by Mente and colleagues, which of the following is a dietary factor strongly linked with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease?
A. Milk
B. Trans fats
C. Eggs
D. Red meat
ANSWER: B

2. What was the primary outcome of the lower carbohydrate diets tested by Gannon et al in treating diabetes?
A. Decreased body weight
B. Increased plasma triglycerides
C. Increased plasma cholesterol
D. Reduced glycohemoglobin
ANSWER: D

3. In the EPIC trial, red meat consumption wasn’t significantly associated with all cause-mortality, but consuming processed meat was associated with higher all cause-mortality in which of the following groups?
A. Previous and current smokers
B. Black Americans
C. Obese individuals
D. Previous and current dieters
ANSWER: A

4. Meat consumption has decreased in the United Kingdom during the last 20 years. How has the incidence of colon cancer changed during that time?
A. It has decreased significantly.
B. It has decreased slightly.
C. It has stayed the same.
D. It has increased significantly.
ANSWER: D

5. Polyface Farms in Virginia relies on hay to feed the animals ___ days a year compared with ___ days required on more conventional farms in the neighborhood.
A. 40, 120
B. 80, 120
C. 120, 40
D. 120, 80
ANSWER: A

6. What was the profitability of Marsden Farm when implementing a three- to four-year crop rotation and using less fertilizer and pesticide?
A. Less profitable than a two-year crop rotation
B. Equally as profitable as a two-year crop rotation
C. More profitable than a two-year crop rotation
D. Twice as profitable as a two-year rotation
ANSWER: B

7. Using a four-year crop rotation instead of a two-year crop rotation, the Marsden Farm experiment resulted in what change to the rate of freshwater toxicity?
A. a 200-percent increase
B. a 200-times increase
C. a 200-percent decrease
D. a 200-times decrease
ANSWER: D

8. Compared to grain-fed beef, pasture-fed ruminants yield a significantly higher content of what?
A. Fat
B. Partially hydrogenated fat
C. Omega-3 fatty acids
D. Omega-6 fatty acids
ANSWER: C

9. Vegetarians and vegans may exhibit lower BMIs than meat eaters even when they do which of the following?
A. Eat a greater number of calories than meat eaters.
B. Eat more plant protein.
C. Eat the same amount of plant protein.
D. Eat less plant protein.
ANSWER: C

10. Eating at the top of the food chain may cause greater health risk due to which of the following?
A. Consuming excessive amounts of saturated fat
B. Accumulating a greater body burden of endocrine disruptors
C. Consuming excessive amounts of protein
D. Consuming an excessive number of calories
ANSWER: B