1. Which of the following statements best defines dysphagia?
A. The presence of an abnormality in the passageway for solids or liquids from the oral cavity to the stomach
B. The presence of a foreign object in the oral cavity that obstructs the passage of food into the pharynx
C. The presence of a foreign object in the oral cavity that obstructs the passage of fluids into the pharynx
D. The presence of a foreign object in the oral cavity that obstructs the passage of food and fluids into the esophagus
2. What is the free water protocol?
A. Not appropriate for all patients with swallowing dysfunction
B. Appropriate for patients with acute medical conditions
C. Fitting for patients suffering from pneumonia
D. Suitable for patients with severe coughing
3. Which of following conditions reflect signs and symptoms of dysphagia in older adults?
A. Delayed swallowing and risk for aspiration
B. Muscle deterioration of the tongue, pharynx, and upper esophagus
C. Episodes of slowed initiation of laryngeal and opharyngeal swallow
D. Parkinson’s and COPD
4. Mr. Jones is an 85-year-old patient complaining of difficulty starting the swallowing process and episodes of regurgitation. What condition does he suffer from?
A. Oral dysphagia
B. Esophageal dysphagia
C. A combination of both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia
D. Oropharyngeal dysphagia
5. Mrs. Smith is a 75-year-old patient admitted to your care with complaints of pressure in the chest while eating. The patient is suffering from esophageal dysphagia.
6. Of the conditions listed below, which contribute to increased risk for developing dysphagia in older adults?
A. Stroke, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
B. Parkinson’s, weight loss, malnutrition, and the flu
C. COPD, cardiovascular disease, upper respiratory infection, and pneumonia
D. Malnutrition, GERD, COPD, and pneumonia
7. Interventions for managing patients with dysphagia range from environmental and noninvasive to physical adjustments. Which of the interventions listed below is the most common noninvasive intervention?
A. Providing adaptive equipment
B. Manipulating diet consistency
C. Providing a quiet environment
D. Increasing level of assistance provided
8. The National Dysphagia Diet Task Force standardized nutrition therapy for the management of patients with dysphagia. How many levels of solid foods and fluids to facilitate dysphagia care are part of the therapy?
A. Four levels of solid food and three levels of fluids
B. Four levels of solid food and four levels of fluids
C. Three levels of solid food and four levels of fluids
D. Three levels of solid food and three levels of fluids
9. What would prompt the assignment of a purée diet for a patient?
A. Risk of choking due to tough food consistency
B. Risk of choking due to need for thickened liquids
C. Risk of choking due to pressure in the chest when eating
D. Risk of choking due to poor chewing ability
10. Adjustments to the dining environment can help to foster better meal intake and independence while eating. Which of the strategies listed below help enhance the eating environment?
A. Improving meal appearance and providing real-time choice
B. Providing mechanically altered diets and viscous liquids
C. Providing adaptive equipment and teaching the patient compensatory strategies
D. Allowing families to provide the patient’s favorite foods and providing thickened liquids